Mars Missions – Destination on the Mars

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Mars Missions – Part 2

I’m going to bring you the second article in a series called Mars Missions. You can read the first part Mars Missions – A Begin to Go of this series in our Mars category. In our last article we briefly discussed why we are working very much to won Mars the red planet.

Today I’m going to tell you about some of these missions humankind do to reach the big goal.
In fact, he was the first person in Russia to take the initiative. Also, almost all the first Mars missions that were done at the beginning were failed.

Marsnik 1/Mars 1M No.1 (USSR)

This was his first mission to Mars. This was the first mission to the Soviet mission to Mars. They were ready to fly this spacecraft to test the space environment between Mars and Earth. It aired on October 10, 1960 at 2.47 pm.

Five minutes later, due to an error in the Attitude Controller, the mother-ship was damaged and it failed due to a change in trajectory angle.

This carried a lot of very important scientific equipment.

  • UV spectrometer
  • Radiation Detector
  • Cosmic- Ray Detector.

Marsnik 2/Mars 1M No. 2 (USSR)

4 Four days after the failure of the first mission, on October 14, 1960, the rocket was launched with the 1M No.2 spacecraft. But unfortunately this operation also fails.

This is due to an oxidative leak in the second stage during launch. Due to this, during the cryogenic temperament, liquid oxygen may leak around the fuel valve of the engine so that the fuel does not freeze and ignite. This is going to fail even before it goes into orbit.
This is a spacecraft sent to explore Mars. It also had several different devices.

  • UV spectrometer
  • Radiation Detector
  • Cosmic- Ray Detector


Mars 2MV-4 No.1

Mars 2MV-4 No.1

So the second mission launched by the Soviet Union failed, and as their third attempt, they fly the 2mv – 4 no 1 flyby missions (both previously mentioned).
24 On October 24, 1962, he was ready to launch it. Soon after launch, the main engine exploded due to a lubricant leak. That is how this operation also fails.
Imaging system
He tried to fly this with devices like a magnetometer. Also, the main function of this was to take photographs.

Mars 2MV – 4 No.2

One week after the failure of the 1st, they will start the No.2 mission. This is also a flyby. They were trying to fly this plane to do a lot of work.

Cosmic radiation, micrometer effects, Mars ‘magnetic field, radiation environment, Mars’ atmosphere, he was ready to fly to get a large amount of data.
He skipped an error at the beginning and flew away. It made 61 successful radio signals as it approached Mars. Unfortunately, due to the malfunction of the orientation system, it had to be abandoned on March 21, 1963.

2MV – 3 No.1

Assuming that the Mars 1 they sent earlier was a success, they launches a mission to land a spacecraft called Lander (meaning landing on Mars).
He flew it on November 4, 1962. Within 260 seconds of taking off, its oxidation pressure system shuts down. This causes the operation to fail.

Mariner 3

This operation was launched by the United States. Launched as the 3rd of 10 famous Mariner missions, it was the first Mars mission in the United States.
This is also a flyby class. It was also flown to observe a large amount of data. Observing the interplanetary environment between Earth and Mars, taking photographs of the surface of Mars .. Some of them.

This too failed due to an error in launching. This carried a lot of very important scientific equipment.

  • Television Camera
  • Magnetometer
  • Plasma probe
  • Cosmic ray telescope
  • Trapped radiation detector
  • Cosmic ray innizalation chamber
  • Cosmic Dug Detector

So I’m talking about the first six missions on Mars, all six of which failed.

But the 7th mission, the second US mars mission, will be the world’s first successful Mars mission.

Thus, the first six Mars exploration missions fail … but this is the seventh time that astronomers have launched a Mars mission. This exploration is successful … The name of the aircraft to be launched is Mariner 4. Accordingly, the first successful exploration aircraft can be named as Mariner 4 … We will know more about this …

Mariner 4

Mariner 4


Mariner 4 is the first successful Mars exploration project. It was launched by the United States at a cost of $ 83.2 million. This exploration spacecraft can also be grouped into the flyby exploration category.

The spacecraft was launched on November 28, 1964 and successfully flew to Mars.

It was designed to provide close scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth.
Thus, Mariner 4 was able to provide the first close – up image of Mars.

This photo shattered the notion of the existence of life on Mars because the planet appeared to be a dead planet.
Another objective of the Mariner 4 spacecraft is to measure fields and particles in space near Mars, as well as to gain the knowledge and experience needed for long-distance space travel.

The Mariner 4 spacecraft, which had been in contact with the Earth for three years, came to a halt on December 21, 1967.

Lets see about the nature of the aircraft and its equipment

The shape of the aircraft and its layout.

The spacecraft has an octagonal magnesium frame. The length of the frame across the diagonal is 127 cm and the height is 45.7 cm.
There are also four solar panels at the top of the frame.The distance from one end to the other is 6.88m.

An elliptical high-gain parabolic antenna measuring 104.1cm × 66.0 cm is mounted at the top of the frame. Also near this High-gain parabolic antenna is a 223.5 cm high Unidirectional Low-gain Antenna. The total height of the spacecraft with this antenna is 2.89cm.

This octagonal frame contains electrical equipment, cables, Medcourse population systems as well as these regulatory devices and gas supplies.

Equipment of the aircraft.

  • Cosmic dust detector

This is mounted on a microphone plate on a spacecraft perpendicular to the plane of orbit. It measured the density, direction, momentum, and distribution of cosmic dust.

  • Cosmic ray telescope

This was done to measure the direction, energy, and spectrum of protons and alpha particles. This is oriented inside the spacecraft in the opposite direction to the sun.

  • Geiger counter / ionization chamber

This is also mounted close to the hull of the spacecraft on the guide of the omnidirectional antenna. It measures the intensity and amplitude of charged particles in interplanetary space and near Mars.

  • Helium magnetometer

This is mounted on the guide of the omnidirectional antenna. It is fitted to measure the magnitude of interplanetary and extraterrestrial magnetic fields. This is a helium magnetometer.

  • Solar plasma probe

It is mounted on the hull of the spacecraft at an inclination of 10 to the Sun, and measures very low energy charged particle currents coming from the Sun.

  • Trapped radiation detector

It is mounted on the fuselage at an angle of 135 from the Sun and 70 70 from the Axis. It measures the intensity and direction of low energy particles.

  • TV camera

This is a TV camera mounted on a scan platform in the lower center of the spacecraft. It consists of four subsystems. Its main and primary purpose is to obtain close-up photographs of the surface of Mars.

Information obtained by Mariner 4

This exploration yielded 5.2 million bits of data. That is, approximately 734kB.In February 1965, all equipment except the Geiger-Muller tube in the inactivated ionization chamber was successfully operational.

It is estimated that the surface atmospheric pressure ranges from 4.1 to 7.0 millibars (410Pa-700Pa).
It also estimates that daytime temperatures on Mars will be -100 C.

However, it did not detect the presence of a magnetic field on Mars or the presence of radiation or water on Mars. It also measures solar wind, and compares its data with those of the Mariner 5 spacecraft to Venus.

According to 22 close-up photos taken by the spacecraft of the Martian surface, the following conclusions have been drawn about Mars.

  • Mars has been named as the thinnest and most harsh planet in the atmosphere.
  • It was stated that intelligent beings do not live and that there is an environment that is not suitable for living.

Last year humans landed the Perseverance Rover, the second rover to the Mars and for the first time humans successfully launched a drone. We will talk until that project in our next article. Add a comment if you have more suggestions. So here are the details of the first successful Mars exploration project. Then let’s meet with information on many more projects after these projects.

About Sasindu Jayasri 89 Articles
Sasindu Jayasri is an Engineering student from Sri Lanka and he studies mechanical engineering at the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Moratuwa. He is passionate about writing and giving inspiration to the world. Follow him in LinkedIn for updates and you can contact him directly.

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